Mini PC,Tablets & Smartphone

Tablet computer

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For the computer input device, see Graphics tablet. For other uses, see Tablet.
“Convertible (computer)” redirects here. For the IBM computer of this name, see IBM PC Convertible.
This article may require copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone, or spelling. You can assist by editing it(May 2013)

iPad (1st generation), a tablet computer

tablet computer, or simply tablet, is a one-piece mobile computer. Devices typically have a touchscreen, with finger or stylus gestures replacing the conventional computer mouse. It is often supplemented by physical buttons or input from sensors such as accelerometers. An on-screen, hideable virtual keyboard is usually used for typing. Tablets differentiate themselves by being larger than smart phones or personal digital assistants. They are usually 7 inches (18 cm) or larger, measured diagonally.[1][2][3]

Though generally self-contained, a tablet computer may be connected to a physical keyboard or other input device. A number of Hybrids that have detachable keyboards have been sold since the mid-1990s. Convertible touchscreen notebook computers have an integrated keyboard that can be hidden by a swivel or slide joint. Booklet tablets have dual-touchscreens and can be used as a notebook by displaying a virtual keyboard on one of the displays.

Conceptualized in the mid 20th century and prototyped and developed in the last two decades of that century, the devices only became affordable and popular in 2010.

As of March 2012, 31% of U.S. Internet users were reported to have a tablet, which was used mainly for viewing published content such as video and news.[4] Among tablets available in 2012, the top-selling line of devices was Apple’s iPad with 100 million sold by mid October 2012 since it had been released on April 3, 2010,[5] followed by Amazon’s Kindle Fire with 7 million, and Barnes & Noble’s Nook with 5 million.[6][7][8] Mobile developers are also increasingly creating apps on tablets, in order to reach a wider audience. As of May 2013, over 70% of mobile developers were targeting tablets[9] (vs. 93% for smartphones and 18% for feature phones).

Smartphone

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

smartphone, or smart phone, is a mobile phone built on a mobile operating system, with more advanced computing capability and connectivity than a feature phone.[1][2][3] The first smartphones combined the functions of a personal digital assistant (PDA) with a mobile phone. Later models added the functionality of portable media players, low-end compact digital cameraspocket video cameras, and GPS navigation units to form one multi-use device. Many modern smartphones also include high-resolution touchscreens and web browsers that display standard web pages as well as mobile-optimized sites. High-speed data access is provided by Wi-Fi and mobile broadband. In recent years, the rapid development of mobile app markets and of mobile commerce have been drivers of smartphone adoption.

The mobile operating systems (OS) used by modern smartphones include Google‘s AndroidApple‘s iOSNokia‘s SymbianRIM‘s BlackBerry OSSamsung‘s BadaMicrosoft‘s Windows PhoneHewlett-Packard‘s webOS, andembedded Linux distributions such as Maemo and MeeGo. Such operating systems can be installed on many different phone models, and typically each device can receive multiple OS software updates over its lifetime. A few other upcoming operating systems are Mozilla‘s Firefox OSCanonical Ltd.‘s Ubuntu Phone, and Tizen.

Worldwide sales of smartphones exceeded those of feature phones in early 2013.[4] As of July 18, 2013, 90 percent of global handset sales are attributed to the purchase of iPhone and Android smartphones.[5]

Operating systems[edit source | editbeta]

Symbian[edit source | editbeta]

The Nokia N8 – the first device to feature a 12megapixel autofocus lens(2010)

Main article: Symbian

Symbian is a mobile operating system designed for smartphones originally developed by Psion as EPOC32 and later passed to and managed by Symbian Ltd. but currently maintained by Accenture.[20] It was the world’s most widely used smartphone operating system until Q4 2010. It has become obsolete since 2011 when Nokia, the last remaining OEM and by far Symbian’s most popular OEM, dropped the platform in favor of Windows Phone.

The first Symbian phone, the touchscreen Ericsson R380 Smartphone, was released in 2000,[21][22] and was the first device marketed as a ‘smartphone’.[23] It combined a PDA with a mobile phone.[24]Later in 2000, the Nokia 9210 communicator was released.

The 7650 from 2002 was the first ever camera phone to hit the European market – it was also Nokia’s first with a color screen display and the first to run on Nokia’s Series 60 (later known as S60) platform, which would become a major smartphone platform in the coming years. In 2007, Nokia launched the Nokia N95, which integrated various multimedia features: GPS, a 5 megapixel camera with autofocusand LED flash, 3G and Wi-Fi connectivity and TV-out. In the next few years these features would become standard on high-end smartphones.

In 2010, Nokia released the Nokia N8 smartphone with a stylus-free capacitive touchscreen, the first device to use the new Symbian^3 OS.[25] Its 12 megapixel camera able to record HD video in 720p.[26] It also featured a front-facing VGA camera for videoconferencing.

Some estimates indicate that the number of mobile devices shipped with the Symbian OS up to the end of Q2 2010 is 385 million.[27] Symbian was the number one smartphone platform by market share from 1996 until 2011 when it dropped to second place behind Google’s Android OS.

In February 2011, Nokia announced that it would replace Symbian with Windows Phone as the operating system on all of its future smartphones.[28] This transition was completed in October 2011, when Nokia announced its first line of Windows Phone 7.5 smartphones, Nokia Lumia 710 and Nokia Lumia 800.[29] Nokia committed to support its Symbian based smartphones until 2016, by releasing further OS improvements like Belle, and new devices, like the Nokia 808 PureView. On January 24, 2013, Nokia officially confirmed that 808 Pureview would be the last Symbian smartphone.

Unlike other smartphone platforms in the early years, Symbian was the first to popularize mobile phone multimedia such as music, video and gaming. The other major smartphone operating systems at the time like Windows MobileBlackBerry OS (in those days) and Palm OS were solely focused on business-use. Despite this Symbian S60 still remained as a popular platform for business use as a result of Nokia’s Communicator series such as the E90, as well as the Navigator series. Symbian’s popularity in multimedia was centred in its Nseries, with devices such as the N73N93, N95 and N97.

Windows Mobile[edit source | editbeta]

HTC Gene P3400 running Windows Mobile 6.5 (2007)

Main article: Windows Mobile

Windows Mobile was based on the Windows CE kernel and first appeared as the Pocket PC 2000 operating system. Throughout its lifespan, the operating system was available in both touchscreen and non-touchscreen formats. It was supplied with a suite of applications developed with the Microsoft Windows API and was designed to have features and appearance somewhat similar to desktop versions of Windows. Third parties could develop software for Windows Mobile with no restrictions imposed by Microsoft. Software applications were eventually purchasable from Windows Marketplace for Mobile during the service’s brief lifespan.

Most early touchscreen devices came with a stylus, which could be used to enter commands by tapping it on the screen. The primary touch input technology behind most devices were resistive touchscreens that often responded more accurately to a stylus for input, but could also be driven by a finger. Later devices used capacitive touchscreens, which were more suited to finger input. Along with touchscreens a large variety of form factors existed for the platform from the humble ‘candy bar’ style to sliding, folding and articulating keyboards.

A key software feature of Windows Mobile was ActiveSync; a data synchronization technology and protocol developed by Microsoft, originally released in 1996. This allowed servers running Microsoft Exchange Server, or other third party variants (such a Google Mail), to act as a personal information manager and share information such as email, calendar appointments, contacts or internet favorites.

Despite being replaced by Windows Phone, Windows Mobile is still in use to this day in the enterprise market by supermarket chains and courier companies.

BlackBerry[edit source | editbeta]

BlackBerry Curve8900 (2008)

Main article: BlackBerry

In 1999, RIM released its first BlackBerry devices, making secure real-time push-email communications possible on wireless devices. Services such as BlackBerry Messenger and the integration of all communications into a single inbox allowed users to access, create, share and act upon information instantly. There are 80 million active BlackBerry service subscribers (BIS/BES) and the 200 millionth BlackBerry smartphone was shipped in September 2012 (twice the number since June 2010[30]). Popular models include the BlackBerry Bold, BlackBerry Torch (slider and all-touch) and BlackBerry Curve. Most recently, RIM has undergone a platform transition. The company has changed its name to Blackberry and is pushing out new devices on a new platform named “Blackberry 10.” So far, 3 devices have been released on this platform: the full-touch “Blackberry Z10” and the Qwerty devices “Q10” and “Q5”.[31]

Android[edit source | editbeta]

Google Nexus S running Android OS 2.3 (2010)

Android is an open-source platform founded in October 2003 by Andy Rubin and backed by Google, along with major hardware and software developers (such as IntelHTCARMMotorola and Samsung, to name a few), that form the Open Handset Alliance.[32] The first phone to use Android was released in October 2008.[33][34] It was called the HTC Dream and was branded for distribution by T-Mobile as the G1. The software suite included on the phone consists of integration with Google’s proprietary applications, such as Maps, Calendar, and Gmail, and a full HTML web browser. Android supports the execution of native applications and a preemptive multitasking capability (in the form of services). Third-party free and paid apps are available via Google Play, which launched in October 2008 as Android Market.

In January 2010, Google launched the Nexus One smartphone using its Android OS. Android has multi-touch abilities, but Google initially removed that feature from the Nexus One,[35] but it was added through a firmware update on February 2, 2010.[36] By Q4 2010, Android became the best selling smartphone platform after massive gains throughout the year.

On June 24, 2011, HTC Corporation released the HTC EVO 3D, a smartphone that can produce stereoscopic 3D effects and take 3D stereoscopic photos for viewing on its screen. Samsung Galaxy S III sales hit 18 million in the third quarter of 2012.[37] On November 13, 2012 Google and LG released the Nexus 4 with Qualcomm’s Snapdragon S4 Pro processor.

iOS[edit source | editbeta]

Main article: iOS

First generation iPhone(2007)

In 2007, Apple Inc. introduced the original iPhone, one of the first mobile phones to use a multi-touch interface. The iPhone was notable for its use of a large touchscreen for direct finger input as its main means of interaction, instead of a stylus, keyboard, and/or keypad as typical for smartphones at the time. It initially lacked the capability to install native applications, meaning some did not regard it as a smartphone.[38] However in June 2007 Apple announced that the iPhone would support third-party “web 2.0 applications” running in its web browser that share the look and feel of the iPhone interface.[39] A process called jailbreaking emerged quickly to provide unofficial third-party native applications to replace the built-in functions (such as a GPS unit, kitchen timer, radio, map book, calendar, notepad, and many others).[40]

In July 2008, Apple introduced its second generation iPhone with a much lower list price and 3G support. Simultaneously, they introduced the App Store, which allowed any iPhone to install third party native applications (both free and paid) over a Wi-Fi or cellular network, without requiring a PC for installation. Applications could additionally be browsed through and downloaded directly via the iTunessoftware client. Featuring over 500 applications at launch,[41] the App Store was very popular,[42] and achieved over one billion downloads in the first year, and 15 billion by 2011.[43][44]

In June 2010, Apple introduced iOS 4, which included APIs to allow third-party applications to multitask,[45] and the iPhone 4, with an improved display and back-facing camera, a front-facing camera for videoconferencing, and other improvements.[46] In early 2011 the iPhone 4 allowed customers to use the handset’s 3G connection as a wireless Wi-Fi hotspot.[47]

The iPhone 4S was announced on October 4, 2011, improving upon the iPhone 4 with a dual core A5 processor, an 8 megapixel camera capable of recording 1080p video at 30 frames per second, World phone capability allowing it to work on both GSM & CDMA networks, and the Siri automated voice assistant.[48] On October 10, Apple announced that over one million iPhone 4Ss had been pre-ordered within the first 24 hours of it being on sale, beating the 600,000 device record set by the iPhone 4.[49][50] Along with the iPhone 4S Apple also released iOS 5 and iCloud, untethered device activation, backup, and synchronization,[51] along with additional features.[52]

In September 2012 Apple released IPhone 5 running IOS 6. In the last generation iOS number of new features was introduced, including panoramic photographyPassbook, Apple Maps and others.

Windows Phone[edit source | editbeta]

Main article: Windows Phone

On February 15, 2010, Microsoft unveiled its next-generation mobile OS, Windows Phone 7. Microsoft’s mobile OS includes a completely over-hauled UI inspired by Microsoft’s “Metro Design Language“. It includes full integration of Microsoft services such as Microsoft SkyDrive and OfficeXbox MusicXbox VideoXbox Live games and Bing, but also integrates with many other non-Microsoft services such asFacebookTwitter and Google accounts. The new software platform has received some positive reception from the technology press and has been praised for its uniqueness.[53][54][55]

On October 29, 2012, Microsoft released Windows Phone 8, the next generation of the operating system. Windows Phone 8 replaces its previously Windows CE-based architecture with one based on theWindows NT kernel with many components shared with Windows 8, allowing developers to easily port applications between the two platforms.

Palm Treo 650, running Palm OS 5.4 (2004)

Palm OS[edit source | editbeta]

Main article: Palm OS

In late 2001, Handspring launched their own Springboard GSM phone module with limIn early 2002, Handspring released the Palm OS Treo smartphone, utilizing both a touch screen and a full keyboard that combined wireless web browsing, email, calendar, and contact organizer with mobile third-party applications that could be downloaded or synced with a computer.[56] Handspring was soon acquired by Palm, which released the Treo 600 and continued, though the series eventually took on Windows Mobile. The last Palm OS smartphone was the Palm Centro.

Bada[edit source | editbeta]

Main article: Bada

The Bada operating system for smartphones was announced by Samsung on 10 November 2009.[57][58] The first Bada-based phone was the Samsung Wave S8500, released on June 1, 2010,[59][60] which sold one million handsets in its first 4 weeks on the market.[61]

Samsung shipped 3.5 million phones running Bada in Q1 of 2011.[62] This rose to 4.5 million phones in Q2 of 2011.[63]

In 2013, Bada has merged with a similar platform called Tizen. The future of its development is unknown.

Open-source development[edit source | editbeta]

The open-source culture has penetrated the smartphone market in several ways. There have been attempts to create open source hardware and software for smartphones.

In February 2010, Nokia made Symbian open source. Thus, most commercial smartphones were based on open-source operating systems. These include those based on Linux, such as Google’sAndroid, Nokia’s Maemo, Hewlett-Packard’s webOS, and those based on BSD, such as the Darwin-based Apple iOSMaemo was later merged with Intel’s project Moblin to form MeeGo.[64][65]

On the 2nd of January, Canonical, best known for its Ubuntu desktop and Smart TV operating systems, announced a mobile version of its operating system, built for both smartphones and tablets. Its design is based on the desktop equivalent and features such as gesture-based navigation.

Leave a Reply